Mechanisms of action and expected clinical effects of modulation of the MALT system by oral bacterial lyophylisates
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Wydział Nauk Medycznych i Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Humanistyczny im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego w Radomiu, Polska
Zakład Immunologii, Biochemii i Żywienia, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Polska
Zakład Profilaktyki Zagrożeń Środowiskowych Alergologii i Immunologii, Warszawski Uniwersytet Medyczny, Wydział Nauk o Zdrowiu, Polska
Marta Stelmasiak   

Wydział Nauk Medycznych i Nauk o Zdrowiu, Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Humanistyczny im. Kazimierza Pułaskiego w Radomiu, Chrobrego 27, 26-600, Radom, Polska
Submission date: 2021-12-10
Final revision date: 2022-05-05
Acceptance date: 2022-05-17
Publication date: 2022-10-12
LW 2022;100(3):150–159
The paper outlines mechanisms and describes expected clinical effects of MALT modulation by selected generally available oral immune vaccines that enhance anti-infective immunity. Non-specific vaccines (oral, intranasal and injectable ones) are used to prevent and treat recurrent infections of the respiratory tract, paranasal sinuses, middle ear, to reduce exacerbations of allergic respiratory tract inflammation, as well as in urogenital tract infections. Considering the current epidemiological situation, as well as previous incidents of infectious disease epidemic, as well as diseases resulting from inadequate protection of the body against pathogens, benefits of oral vaccine immunomodulatory properties should be taken under consideration. These products are safe, effective and reasonably priced compared to traditional vaccines and are most commonly used in patients at risk of recurrent infections. Patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, COPD) are a particular target group. Oral vaccines can influence various cells of the immune system by altering their activity and production of messenger proteins (cytokines, growth factors, chemokines, interferons). Observed clinical effects of oral vaccines most often include prevention or reduction of infection incidence, as well as shortening their duration and inflammation spread suppression, which leads to reduction in frequency and duration of antibiotic use. Taking oral immune preparations has also reduced the amount of applied medication. Oral immune vaccines modulate MALT specifically and non-specifically, enhancing mucosal and systemic immune system, resulting in improved clinical parameters.